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Food Growing in/on Mars

Our topic is about growing food in Mars basically all of our Team member is having an individual task to handle the project in this team. As a team sharing the topic is a good idea so everyone is focusing on his/her subject. we are gathering during this project in different places for an example TAMK University of Applied Science . discussion are going through social application in our group in WhatsApp and almost of our team member is active and researching for this challenge.

1.     Water value in MARS

temperature in measured and it says the coldest before sunrises, about -78 c (-108 F ) and the warmest mars noon, about -8 C (-18 F) .the highest temperature never reached the freezing point of water 0 C (32 F), it’s too cold for pure liquid water to exist on the surface.

The atmospheric pressure measured by the pathfinder on Mars is very low, about 0.6% of Earth’s and it would not permit pure liquid water to exist on the surface.

Liquid solid water is a key for living and growing.

An example : see the cars in winter they uses antifreeze which means it remains liquid, Soil in mars have 60% water Underground water under soil In Mars as NASA reported.

Hydroponically  grown food is 20 % in Mars

2.     Beneficial Microbes for Plants

There are some bacteria who helps the plants to grow fast. They help to increase the growth hormone of the plants and prevents disease. Many of them are naturally present in the earth soil. Some of them are here:

  1. Rhizobia
  2. Mycorrhizal fungi
  3. Actinomycetes
  4. Diazotrophic

Some plant growth promoting bacteria are:

  1. Pseudomonas fluorescents
  2. Flavobacterium spp.
  3. Alcaligenes sp.
  4. Agrobacterium radiobactor
  5. Bacillus subtills (Helps Rhizobia bacteria)

Some of the plant growth hormones are:

  1. Auxin
  2. Gibberellin
  3. Cytokinin
  4. Ethylene
  5. Abscisic Acid

Rhizobia – It’s infected the plant roots, creating nodules where N2 is fixed provided the plant with the most of N it needs for its development.

It’s not easy to grow plants in mars and make bacteria livable in mars condition. Some of the condition is describe below,

Mars has no magnetic field surrounding in the thick atmosphere. Infect mars has some magnetic umbrella in some ground’s parts.

If we compare the earth components and mars components we see,

In addition, we can also see the great temperature different in Mars and Earth. In earth, the highest temperature was ever recorded was 56.7-degreeCelsius in Death Valley, Eastern California (July 10, 1913) and lowest temperature was also recorded which is –89.2-degree Celsius in Vostok Station, Antarctica (July 21,1983).

But in mars the temperature is almost opposite than earth. In Mars the highest temperature was 20 degree Celsius and the lowest temperature was –125 degree Celsius but the Average temperature is –55 degree Celsius.

If we talk about the atmosphere of Earth which is 101325 Pa and in Mars, the atmosphere is extremely low. It’s 600 Pa. If we compare it to the earth the mars atmosphere is 0.60 % of earth. And, the gravity is very low compare to Earth. In Earth the gravity is 9.81 ms-2 and in mars3.71 ms-2.

In earth we can see the Antarctic region is covered with permanent ice and snow where about 1% land available for the plant grow. There are no lives or shrubs we can find in Antartica. Some of the plants are

Antarctica hair grass (Deschampsiaantarctica)

Antarctic pearlwort. (Colobonthusgutenis)

Tussock grass (Pardiocholoamagellanica)

Greater burnet (Acaenamagellanica)

MagellanicClubmoss (Lycopodium magellanicium)

Montiafortana (Water blinks)

Poaannua (Annual meadow-grass)

Poaflabellata (Tussac-grass)

Antarcticbuttercap (Ranunculus biternatus)

3. Temperature reaction to different plants

How Does Temperature Affect Plant Growth?

High temperatures affect plant growth in numerous ways. The most obvious are the effects of heat on photosynthesis, in which plants use carbon dioxide to produce oxygen, and respiration, an opposite process in which plants use oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. Experts at Colorado State University Extension explain that both processes increase when temperatures rise. However, when temperatures reach uncomfortably high limits (which depends on the plant), the two processes become unbalanced. Tomatoes, for example, get into trouble when temperatures exceed about 96 degrees F. (36 C.). The effect of temperature on plants vary widely, and is influenced by factors such as exposure to sunlight, moisture drainage, elevation, difference between day and night temperatures, and proximity to surrounding rock structure (thermal heat mass).

Does Temperature Affect Seed Growth?

Some plant seeds, including cool season vegetables, like lettuce and broccoli, germinate best in temperatures between 55 and 70 F. (13 to 21 C.), while warm season plants, such as squash and marigolds, germinate best when temperatures are between 70 and 85 F. (21 to 13 C.). So whether it’s extreme heat or cold, temperature does affect plants and their growth. This is one of the reasons why it’s important to check a plant’s hardiness and see if it is compatible to your particular growing zone. Of course, where Mother Nature is concerned, even when grown in optimal conditions, you cannot control the weather.

Temperature

Generally, plants grow faster with increasing air temperatures up to a point. Extreme heat will slow growth and also increase moisture loss. The temperatures for optimal growth vary with the type of plant. Some annual flowers and vegetables are extremely sensitive to cold, and transplants should not be planted until temperatures are consistently warm. Extremely hot or cold soil temperatures can also hamper plant growth, as well as affect seed germination. Cool temperatures in fall trigger the plant to reduce growth and store energy. As temperatures approach freezing, growth stops and the plant (if perennial) becomes dormant. Plants are better able to withstand cold temperatures when dormant. A sudden cold snap in late fall before the plant has had a chance to harden off can do more harm than sustained cold temperatures in mid-winter. Many plants require a chilling period of a certain number of days before growth resumes in spring. Plants native to areas further south with a shorter chilling requirement may resume growth during a warm period in winter and then be damaged when cold weather returns. Plants native to the area will generally not break dormancy. Wide temperature fluctuations can be hard on plants, particularly in winter. Warm days followed by freezing nights can cause bark injury on trees with thin, smooth bark. Alternate freezing and thawing of soil can result in heaving of shallow-rooted plants. Temperature (along with day length in some cases) can also trigger flowering in some plants, as well as affect how long flowers last. Extreme temperatures (too hot or too cold) can inhibit fruit set on tomatoes and other garden plants. Temperature as well as moisture level may affect the flavor of fruits and vegetables. Hot weather can cause cool-season vegetables to bolt, resulting in reduced production and changes in flavor. An unexpected frost can cause special problems in spring or fall. Frost can damage cell walls or cell contents of actively growing plants. Frost is more likely in lowlying areas on a clear night with little wind. An early fall frost can be followed by a number of weeks of warm weather. Temperature can also have indirect effects on plants. A warm winter may result in a larger insect population the following season.

4. NASA PROJECT(Fertilizer and Food growing)

So in every planet for surviving we need food and somehow we need to plant those food for living

.Like that we also need to produce food in mars .What? Mars? Yeah Mars .I was not talking about planet earth .

So for growing food in Mars what we can do ? Can we really grow food in Mars ?

Mars soil has some essential nutrients .There are two parts of the nutrients.One is Macro nutrients and another is Micro nutrients.

Macronutrients Micronutrients
Oxygen Iron
Carbon Manganese
Hydrogen Zinc
Nitrogen Copper
Potassium Molybdenum
Phosphorus Boron
calcium Chlorine
Magnesium (these two nutrients were detected at Mars soil)
Sulfur

 

In reality,the soil on actually does have the nutrients. Plant would need to survive on Mars.There may not be the right amount of nutrients depending on where astronauts land on the Red planet but mars soil has less nutrients than the the actual nutrients which is really needed for plant growing .(References www.scienceofastronomy.com) .So fertilizer may need to be added to the soil .The per chlorides in the soil would be leached out and operated from the water.

For growing food and which food we can grow ?

So could we grow food on mars .Mars may become the humankind next home address if planned space mission to the Red planet are successful and one of the most important aspects of establishing a self sustaining colony in the hospitable Martian climate will be to provide a sustainable food source by growing plants in sheltered green house .Some researcher at the university of America had challenged their students in the last fall that, can the foods can be grown at green house using Mars regather stimulant and an iron rich basalt with reagents added to closely approximate the chemical content of Martian Topsoil .Based on the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory the stimulant is 90 percent similar to regather found on the surface of Mars excluding poisonous percolates found on the planets actual surface which scientists are working on removing .

 

Tasks with growing plants that are nutrias and likely to thrive are Carrots,Spinach,Lettuce,Kale,Garlic and Potatoes among others. For food measures HOPS an incident needed to brew beer was also included .Using ORGANIC fertilizers ,varying light conditions and in comparison to identical ‘CONTROL PLANTS’ grown in planet Earth .

 

Talking about a movie about MARS which has shown food growing in MARS .The movie name is The MARTIAN .So if you have watched this movie you will see that an astronaut who is stacked at MARS for technical reason growing potatoes in NASA network home .There is some Hollywood charismatic things but using his own body wastes and growing food in light temperature ,Can we really do this ? An article in the US journals published that it is not in reality but this can happen if we use the light temperature by using microbiology .

So for food growing we are working on and hope that in the near future I will submit some more things about growing food on MARS .